Prof Colleen Downs

Contact Details


Building: John Bews A

Office no: 221

Telephone: 033-2605127

Fax: 033-2605105

e-mail: downs@ukzn.ac.za

 

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Teaching


Biol 101 - Biology 101 Scientific method; evolution

Biol 204 - Ecophysiology Animal ecophysiology

Biol 222 - Vertebrate Biology Evolution and introduction to the vertebrates

Biol 390 Project Third year projects

Biol 300 Communication and Review essay

Various Honours short courses



Research Interests


• Physiology, behaviour, ecology and conservation of southern African terrestrial vertebrates


• Ecophysiology-Vertebrate response to food availability in unpredictable environments- implications for their ecophysiology and conservation. Energy and water turnover of nectarivores, herbivores and frugivores. Digestive constraints. Diet switching. Nutritional and physiological effects of secondary compounds. Thermal physiology.


• Ecosystem health in KwaZulu-Natal including conservation, general biology, rural and urban ecology: Cape Parrots, Bushbuck, Oribi, Pelicans, Nile Crocodiles, Fruit Bats, Serval, Genets, Raptors, Hadedas and feral cats.


• Science education-Problems experienced Life Science students. Development of appropriate teaching strategies to address these. Scientific Method. Human capacity development



Publications


Online profiles of publications

Google Scholar : http://scholar.google.co.za/citations?hl=en&user=zXKfKu0AAAAJ

ISI ResearcherID: A-7770-2010


Publications list

Last updated : November 2012


Zungu, M.M., Brown, M., & Downs, C.T. 2013. Seasonal thermoregulation in the burrowing parrot (Cyanoliseus patagonus). Journal of Thermal Biology 38: 47-54.


Bizaare, L., Downs, C.T. & Coetzer T. 2012. Disaccharidase presence and activities in a range of southern African frugivores. Ostrich in press.


Russell, C. & Downs, C.T. 2012. Effect of land use on the anuran species composition in north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Applied Geography 35: 247-256.


Mqokeli, B.R. & Downs, C.T. 2012. Palate and lingual adaptations for frugivory and nectarivory in Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi). Zoomorphology DOI 10.1007/s00435-012-0170-3


Bowker, M.B. & Downs, C.T. 2012. Breeding of Large, Water-associated, Colonially Nesting Birds of the North-eastern Region of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Waterbirds 35: 270-291.


Downs, C.T. & Brown, M. 2012. Is respirometry a standardized technique? A review of measurement of avian resting metabolic rates. Journal of Thermal Biology 37: 531–536.


Coleman, J. & Downs, C.T. 2012. The sweet side of life: Sugar type and concentration preference in Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit (Epomophorus wahlbergi). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 162: 431-436


Jordaan, L.A., & Downs, C.T. 2012. Comparison of germination rates and fruit traits of indigenous Solanum giganteum and invasive S. mauritianum in South Africa. South African Journal of Botany 80: 13-20.


Jordaan, L.A., & Downs, C.T. 2012. Forbidden fruit: nutritional and morphological traits of invasive and exotic fleshy-fruits in South Africa. Biotropica DOI: 10.1111/j.1744-7429.2012.00875.x


Downs, C.T., Brown, M., & Zungu, M.M. 2012. Seasonal effects on thermoregulatory abilities of the Wahlberg’s epaulette fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Thermal Biology 37: 144-150.


Downs, C.T., Mqokeli, B., & Singh, P. 2012. Sugar assimilation and digestive efficiency in Wahlberg’s epaulette fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A 161: 344-348.


Jordaan, L.A., Johnson, S.D. & Downs, C.T. 2012. Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) as a potential dispersal agent for fleshy-fruited invasive alien plants: effects of handling behaviour on seed germination. Biological Invasions 14: 959-968 DOI 10.1007/s10530-011-0131-7 (online in 2011)


Wilson, A-L., Downs, C.T. 2012. Fruit nutritional composition and non-nutritive traits of indigenous South African tree species. South African Journal of Botany 78: 30-36. (online in 2011)


Wilson, A-L., Downs, C.T. 2012. Knysna Turacos (Tauraco corythaix) do not improve seed germination of ingested fruit of some indigenous South African tree species. South African Journal of Botany 78: 55-62. (online in 2011)


Brown, M., Downs, C.T. & Johnson, S.D. 2012. African Red-winged Starlings prefer hexose sugar solutions, but do not like them too sweet. Journal of Ornithology 153: 265-272.


Wilson, A-L., Downs, C.T. 2012. Food intake rates, digestive efficiency, and transit times of Knysna (Tauraco corythaix) turacos fed South African indigenous fruit. Journal of Ornithology 153: 285-290.


Jordaan, L.A., Johnson, S.D. & Downs, C.T. 2011. Digestion of fruit of alien invasive plants by three southern African frugivores. Ibis 153:863–867.


Jones, A.L. & Downs, C.T. 2011. Managing feral cats: how many are there on the University of KwaZulu-Natal campuses and is sterilisation having an effect? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 14:304-320.


Brown, M., Downs, C.T. & Johnson, S.D. 2011. Covariation of flower traits and bird pollinator assemblages among populations of Kniphofia linearifolia (Asphodelaceae). Plant Systematics and Evolution 294:199–206.


Jordaan, L.A., Johnson, S.D. & Downs, C.T. 2011. The role of avian frugivores in germination of seeds of fleshy-fruited invasive alien plants. Biological Invasions 13:1917–1930.


Wilson, A-L., Downs, C.T. & Brown, M. 2011. Seasonal variation in metabolic rate of a medium-sized frugivore, the Knysna Turaco. Journal of Thermal Biology 36: 167-172.


Volampeno, M.S.N, Masters, J., & Downs, C.T. 2011. Life history traits, maternal behaviour and infant development of blue-eyed black lemurs (Eulemur flavifrons). American Journal of Primatology 73: 474–484.


Wilson, A-L. & Downs, C.T. 2011. Digestive efficiency of Knysna and purple crested turacos fed varying concentrations of equicaloric and equimolar artificial fruit. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 607-612.


Volampeno, M.S.N, Masters, J., & Downs, C.T. 2011. Home range size in the blue-eyed black lemur (Eulemur flavifrons): A comparison between dry and wet seasons. Mammalian Biology 76: 157-164.


Wilson, A-L. & Downs, C.T. 2011. Food preferences of Knysna and purple crested turacos fed varying concentrations of equicaloric and equimolar artificial fruit. Journal of Experimental Biology 214: 613-618.


Volampeno, M.S.N, Masters, J., & Downs, C.T. 2011. A population estimate of blue-eyed black lemurs in Ankarafa Forest, Sahamalaza - Iles Radama National Park. Folia Primatologica 81: 305-314.


Wilson, A-L. & Downs, C.T. 2011. The effect of seed packaging on digestion and food preference by Purple-crested (Gallirex porphyreolophus) and Knysna Turacos (Tauraco corythaix). Journal of Ornithology 152: 193-200.


Brown, M., Downs, C.T. & Johnson, S.D. 2010. Sugar preferences and digestive efficiency in an opportunistic avian nectarivore, the Dark-capped Bulbul. Journal of Ornithology. 151: 637-643.


Wimberger, K., & Downs, C.T. 2010. Annual intake trends of a large urban animal rehabilitation centre in South Africa: a case study? Animal Welfare 19: 501-513.


Wimberger, K., Downs, C.T. & Boyes, S. 2010. A survey of wildlife rehabilitation in South Africa: is there a need for greater regulation? Animal Welfare 19: 481-499.


Wellmann, A. & Downs, C.T. 2010. Nocturnal pectoral tuft display in the malachite sunbird Nectarinia famosa. African Zoology 45: 342-347.


Coleman, J.C. & Downs, C.T. 2010. Does home range of the black-tailed tree rat (Thallomys nigricauda Thomas 1882) change


with season along an aridity gradient? African Zoology 45: 177-188.


Bowker, M.B., Taylor, R. & Downs, C.T. 2010. Numbers and distribution of the Great White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus) and the Pink-backed Pelican (P. rufescens) in north eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Ostrich 81: 179–188.


Coleman, J.C. & Downs, C.T. 2010. Characterising the thermal environment of small mammalian endotherms: what should we be measuring, and how? Open Access Animal Physiology 2: 47-59.


Wimberger, K., Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 2010. Post-release success of two rehabilitated vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops) troops in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Folia Primatologica 81:96-108.


Lindsay, C.V., Downs, C.T. & Brown, M. 2010. Seasonal variation in hematocrit levels of amethyst sunbirds (Chalcomitra amethystina) over an altitudinal gradient. Journal of Ornithology 151: 851-855.


Odendaal, T.C., Brown, M., Downs, C.T. & Johnson, S.D. 2010. Sugar preferences and digestive efficiency of the village weaver: a generalist avian pollinator of African plants. Journal of Experimental Biology 213:2531-2535.


Brown, M., Downs, C.T. & Johnson, S.D. 2010. Sugar preferences of a generalist non-passerine flower visitor, the African Speckled Mousebird. Auk 127: 781-786.


Brown, M., Downs, C.T. & Johnson, S.D. 2010. Pollination of the red-hot poker Kniphofia laxiflora (Asphodelaceae) by sunbirds. South African Journal of Botany 76: 460-464.


Grey-Ross, R., Downs, C.T. & Kirkman, K. 2010. An assessment of illegal hunting on farmland in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for oribi Ourebia ourebi conservation. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 40:43-52.


Tennent, J., Downs, C.T., Wald, D.M. & Watson, 2010. H. Public perceptions of feral cats within an urban conservancy on a campus of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 40: 16-26.


Lobban, K., Downs, C.T. & Brown, M. 2010. Diel variations in plasma glucose concentration in some South African avian frugivores. Emu 110:66-70.


Nzama, S., Downs, C.T. & Brown, M. 2010. Seasonal variation in the metabolism-temperature relation of House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Journal of Thermal Biology 35: 100-104.


Brown, M., Downs, C.T. & Johnson, S.D. 2010. Concentration-dependent sugar preferences of the Malachite Sunbird Nectarinia famosa. Auk 127: 151-155.


Downs, C.T., Wellmann, A. & Brown, M. 2010. Diel variations in blood glucose concentrations in Malachite Sunbirds Nectarina famosa. Journal of Ornithology 151: 235-239.


Downs, C.T. 2010. Increasing equity and compensating historically academically disadvantaged students at a tertiary level: benefits of a Science Foundation Programme as a way of access. Teaching in Higher Education. 15: 97-107.


Coleman, J.C. & Downs, C.T. 2010. Daily rhythms of body temperature and activity in free-living Black-tailed Tree Rats (Thallomys nigricauda) along an aridity gradient. Physiology and Behaviour 99:22-32.


Downs, C.T. 2009. Is vacation apprenticeship of undergraduate Life Science students a model for human capacity development in the Life Sciences? International Journal of Science Education 32: 687-704.


Wimberger, K., Armstrong, A.J., and Downs CT. 2009. Can rehabilitated leopard tortoises be successfully released into the wild? Chelonian Conservation and Biology 8:173-184.


Tennent, J.K., Downs, C.T., & Bodasing, M. 2009. Management Recommendations for Feral Cat (Felis catus) Populations within an Urban Conservancy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39: 137-142.


Wimberger, K., Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 2009. Two unsuccessful re-introduction attempts of rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) into a reserve in the KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39: 192-201.


Brown, M., Downs, C.T. & Johnson, S.D. 2009. Pollination of the red hot poker Kniphofia caulescens by short-billed opportunistic avian nectarivores. South African Journal of Botany 75: 707-712.


Coleman, J.C. & Downs, C.T. 2009. Variation in urine concentrating ability and water balance of the Black-tailed Tree Rat Thallomys nigricauda, along an aridity gradient. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A 154: 508-513


McMaster, M. & Downs, C.T. 2009. Home Range and Daily Movement of Leopard Tortoises (Stigmochelys pardalis) in the Nama-Karoo, South Africa. Journal of Herpetology 43: 561-569


Chamane, S.C. & Downs, C.T. 2009. Seasonal effects on metabolism and thermoregulation abilities of the Red-winged Starling (Onychognathus morio). Journal of Thermal Biology 34: 337-341


Downs, C.T. 2009. Academic Performance and Pass Rates: Comparison of Three First Year Life Science courses. South African Journal of Higher Education 23:656-673.


Grey-Ross, R., Downs, C.T. & Kirkman, K. 2009. Is use of translocation for the conservation of subpopulations of oribi Ourebia ourebi effective? A case study. African Journal of Ecology 47: 409-415.


Grey, R., Downs, C.T. & Kirkman, K. 2009. Reintroduction failure of captive-bred oribi Ourebia ourebi. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 39:34-38.


Grey-Ross, R., Downs, C.T. & Kirkman, K. 2009. Using housing estates as conservation tools: A case study in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Applied Geography. 29:371-376.


Downs, C., Boix-Hinzen, C & Brown, M. 2009. Morphology and functional significance of air bags in hornbill nestlings. Ostrich 80: 53-58.


Wellmann, A.E. & Downs, CT. 2009. Sugar preferences and digestion by Cape White-eyes, Zosterops virens, fed artificial fruit diets. African Zoology 44: 106-116.


Lindsay, C.V., Downs, C.T. & Brown, M. 2009. Physiological variation in Amethyst Sunbirds (Chalcomitra amethystina) over an altitudinal gradient in summer. Journal of Thermal Biology 34: 190-199.


Lindsay, C.V., Downs, C.T. & Brown, M. 2009. Physiological variation in Amethyst Sunbirds (Chalcomitra amethystina) over an altitudinal gradient in winter. Journal of Experimental Biology 212:483-493.


Wellmann, A. & Downs, C.T. 2009. A behavioural study of sleep patterns in the malachite sunbird, Cape white-eye, and fantailed widowbird. Animal Behaviour 77: 61-66.


Tennent, J.K. & Downs, C.T. 2008. Abundance, home range and behaviour of feral cats in an urban conservancy where there is supplemental feeding: a case study. African Zoology 43: 218-229.


Bush, N.G., Brown, M. & Downs, C.T. 2008. Effects Of Short-Term Acclimation On Thermoregulatory Responses Of The Rock Kestrel, Falco rupicolus. Journal of Thermal Biology 33: 425-430.


Bush, N.G., Brown, M. & Downs, C.T. 2008. Seasonal Effects On Thermoregulatory Responses Of The Rock Kestrel, Falco rupicolis. Journal of Thermal Biology 33: 404-412.


Brown, M., Downs, C.T. & Johnson, S.D. 2008. Sugar preferences of nectar feeding birds- a comparison of experimental techniques. Journal of Avian Biology 39: 479-483.


Burton, S., Perrin, M.R. & Downs, C.T. 2008. Thermal Biology of African Lovebirds and Australian Grass Parakeets. Journal of Thermal Biology 33: 355-362.


McMaster, M.K. & Downs, C.T. 2008. Digestive Parameters and Water Turnover of the Leopard Tortoise. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A 151: 114-125.


Bowker, M.B. & Downs, C.T. 2008. Fluctuations in numbers of great white pelicans at Lake St Lucia in response to changing water-levels. African Journal of Ecology 46: 282-290.


Potgieter, D., Brown, M., & Downs, C.T. 2008. Is commercial Protea farming causing a change in the seasonal range of Gurney’s Sugarbird Promerops gurneyi, in the KwaZulu-Natal Midlands, South Africa? Ostrich 79: 61-66


Downs, C.T. 2008. Aspects of diet choice and digestion in the Dark-capped Bulbul Pycnonotus barbatus. Ostrich 79: 73-78.


Bowker, M.B. & Downs, C.T. 2008. The status of habitat of Great White and Pink-backed Pelicans in north eastern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a review. African Zoology 43: 90-98.


Bowker, M.B. & Downs C.T. 2008. Breeding incidence of the Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus and the Pink-backed Pelican P. rufescens in south eastern Africa from 1933 to 2005. Ostrich 79: 23-35.


Downs, C.T., Greaver, C., & Taylor R. 2008. Body temperature and basking behaviour of Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) during winter. Journal of Thermal Biology 33: 185-192.


Smit, B., Brown, M. & Downs, C.T. 2008. Thermoregulatory responses in seasonally acclimatized captive Southern White-faced Scops-owls. Journal of Thermal Biology 33: 76-86.


Inglis, M., Kirkwood, T., Downs, C.T. & Parkinson, J. 2007. Writing their way into Science: gaining access to the discourse of Biology. Journal for Language Teaching 41: 83-98.


Coates, G. & Downs, C.T. 2007. Population estimates of bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) in valley thicket and coastal bushveld-grassland habitat. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 37: 91-95.


Kirby, N.F. & Downs, C.T. 2007. Self-Assessment and the Science Foundation Programme student. Potential for encouraging self-regulated learning? Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 32: 475-494.


Brown, K. & Downs, C.T. 2007. Basking behaviour in rock hyrax (Procavia capensis) during winter. African Zoology 42:70-79.


Coates, G. & Downs, C.T. 2006. A preliminary study of valley thicket and coastal bushveld-grassland habitat use during summer by bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus): a telemetry based study. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 36: 167-172.


McMaster, M. & Downs, C.T. 2006 Population structure and density of Leopard Tortoises (Geochelone pardalis) on farmland in the Nama-Karoo. Journal of Herpetology 40: 497-503.


Pain, D.J., Martins, T.L.F., Boussekey, M., Diaz, S.H., Downs, C.T., Ekstrom, J.M.M., Garnett, S., Gilardi, J.D., McNiven, D., Primot, P. Rouys, S., Saoumoé, M., Symes, C.T., Tamungang, S.A., Theuerkauf, J., Villafuerte, D., Verfailles, L., Widmann, P. & Widmann, I.D. 2006. The impact of protection on nest-take and nesting success of parrots in Africa, Asia and Australasia. Animal Conservation 9: 332-330.


Downs, C.T. 2006. Geophagy in the African Olive Pigeon Columba arquatrix. Ostrich 77: 40-44.


Brown, K. & Downs, C.T. 2006. Seasonal patterns of body temperature of free-living rock hyrax (Procavia capensis). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 143: 42-49


McMaster, M. & Downs, C.T. 2006. Does seasonal and behavioral differences in the use of refuges by the leopard tortoise (Geochelone pardalis) favour passive thermoregulation? Herpetologica 62: 37-46.


Downs, C.T. 2006. What should make up a final mark for a course? An investigation into the academic performance of first year Bioscience students. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 31: 345-364.


Downs, C.T. 2005. Is A Year-Long Access Course Into University Helping Previously Disadvantaged Black Students In Biology? South African Journal of Higher Education 19:666-683.


Coates, G. & Downs, C.T. 2005. A survey of the status and management of syntopic bushbuck and nyala in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 35 (2):179-190.


Soobramoney, S., Downs, C.T. & Adams, N.J. 2005. Morphological variation in the Common Fiscal Shrike Lanius collaris along an altitudinal gradient in southern Africa. Ostrich 76 (3&4): 130-141.


Downs, C.T. 2005. Artificial nest boxes and wild Cape Parrots Poicephalus robustus: persistence pays off. Ostrich 76 (3&4): 222-224


Coates, G. & Downs, C.T. 2005. A telemetry based study of bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) home range in Valley Bushveld. African Journal of Ecology 43:376-384.


Soobramoney, S., Campbell, G.K., Downs, C.T.& Adams, N.J. 2005. Genetic variability of South African Fiscal Shrikes Lanius collaris across an altitudinal gradient in South Africa. African Zoology 40: 193-204.


Downs, C.T. 2005. Abundance of the endangered Cape Parrot, Poicephalus robustus, in South Africa: the implications for its survival. African Zoology 40: 15-24.


Brown, K. & Downs, C.T. 2005. Seasonal behavioural patterns of free-living rock hyrax (Procavia capensis). Journal of Zoology 265:311-326


Symes, CT, Brown, M, Warburton, L., Perrin, MR and Downs, CT. 2004. Observations of Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus nesting in the wild. Ostrich 75:106-109.


Downs, C.T. 2004. Some preliminary results of studies on the bill and tongue morphology of Gurney's Sugarbird and some southern African sunbirds. Ostrich 75: 169-175.


Downs, C.T. & Symes, C.T. 2004. Snag dynamics and forest structure in Afromontane forests in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for the conservation of cavity-nesting avifauna. South African Journal of Botany 70: 265-276.


Soobramoney, S., Downs, C.T. & Adams, N.J. 2004. Variability in foraging behaviour and prey of the Fiscal Shrike Lanius collaris along an altitudinal gradient in South Africa. Ostrich 75: 133-140.


Soobramoney, S., Downs, C.T. & Adams, N.J. 2004. Territorial behaviour and time budgets of the Fiscal Shrike Lanius collaris along an altitudinal gradient in South Africa. African Zoology 39:137-143.


Brown, M. & Downs, C.T. 2004. Daily and seasonal differences in body and egg temperatures in free-ranging Crowned Lapwings (Vanellus coronatus). African Zoology 39:115-122.


Soobramoney, S., Downs, C.T. & Adams, N.J. 2003. Physiological variability in the Fiscal Shrike Lanius collaris along an altitudinal gradient in South Africa. Journal of Thermal Biology 28:581-594.


Calf, K.M., Downs, C.T. & Cherry, M.I. 2003. Territoriality of Cape Sugarbirds (Promerops cafer) between and within seasons. Ostrich 74:125-128.


Downs, C.T., McDonald, P., Brown, K. & Ward, D. 2003. The effects of Acacia condensed tannins on urinary parameters, body mass and diet choice of an Acacia specialist rodent, Thallomys nigricauda. Journal of Chemical Ecology 29: 827-840.


Calf, K.M., Downs, C.T. & Cherry, M.I. 2003. Foraging and territorial behaviour of male Cape and Gurney's sugarbirds (Promerops cafer and Promerops gurneyi). African Zoology 38:297-304


Brown, K.J. & Downs, C.T. 2003. Digestive Efficiency of a generalist avian feeder, the Cape White-eye (Zosterops pallidus). Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology A 134: 739-749.


Calf, K.M., Downs, C.T. & Cherry, M.I. 2003. Territoriality and breeding success in the Cape Sugarbird (Promerops cafer). Emu 103:29-35


Brown, M. & Downs, C.T. 2003. The role of shading behavior in the thermoregulation of breeding Crowned Plovers (Vanellus coronatus). Journal of Thermal Biology 28: 51-58.


Symes, C.T. & Downs, C.T. 2002. Occurrence of Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus at non-forest feeding sites in South Africa: threats to a declining population. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 9: 27-31.


Mbatha, K.R., Downs, C.T. & Penning, M. 2002 Nectar passage and gut morphology in the Malachite Sunbird and the Black-capped Lory: implications for feeding in nectarivores. Ostrich 73: 138-142.


Symes, C.T., Wirminghaus, J.O., & Downs, C.T. 2002. Species richness and seasonality of forest avifauna in three South African afromontane forests. Ostrich 73: 106-113.


Downs, C.T., Van Dyk, R. & Iji, P. 2002. Wax digestion in the Lesser Honeyguide Indicator minor. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology A 133: 125-134.


Mbatha, K.R., Downs, C.T., & Nsahlai, I.V. 2002. The effects of graded levels of dietary tannin on the epithelial tissue of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidney masses of Boer goats. Animal Science (British) 74:579-586.


Byron, J. & Downs, C.T. 2002. Bird presence at Oribi Airport and Recommendations to avoid bird strikes. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 32: 49-58.


Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Symes, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 2002. Diet of the Cape Parrot, Poicephalus robustus, in Afromontane forests in


KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa. Ostrich 73: 20-25.


Calf, K.M. & Downs, C.T. 2002. Breeding biology of the Gurney's sugarbird, Promerops gurneyi in Qwaqwa National Park, eastern Free State. Ostrich 73: 1-4.


Downs, C.T. & Brown, M. 2002. Nocturnal Heterothermy And Torpor In The Malachite Sunbird (Nectarinia famosa, Passeriformes). Auk 119: 251-260.


Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T. Perrin, M.R. & Symes, C.T. 2002. Taxonomic relationships of the subspecies of the Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus (Gmelin). Journal of Natural History 36: 361-378.


Brown, M. & Downs, C.T. 2002. Development of Homeothermy in Hatchling Crowned Plovers Vanellus coronatus. Journal of Thermal Biology 27:95-101.


Feltham, N.F. & Downs, C.T. 2002. Three forms of assessment of prior knowledge, and improved performance following an enrichment programme, of English second Language Biology students within the context of a marine theme. International Journal of Science Education 24: 157-184.


Calf, K.M., Downs, C.T. & Cherry, M.I. 2001. Territoriality and breeding success in Gurney's Sugarbirds (Promerops gurneyi). African Zoology 36: 189-195.


Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Symes, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 2001. Breeding biology of the Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus. Ostrich 72: 159-164.


Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Symes, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 2001. Fruiting in Two Afromontane Forests in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: the Habitat Type of the Endangered Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus South African Journal of Botany 67: 329-336


Daniels, C., Downs, C.T. & Maclean, G.L. 2001. Arthropods in the diet of nectarivorous birds (Passeriformes: Nectariniidae) and sugarbirds (Passeriformes: Promeropidae). Durban Museum Novitates 26: 45-48.


Symes, C.T. & Downs, C.T. 2001. Feeding and energy intake in two avian frugivores, the Blackeyed Bulbul Pycnonotus barbartus and Speckled Mousebird Colius striatus. Durban Museum Novitates 26: 20-24.


Haim. A., Downs, C.T., & Raman, J. 2001. Effects of adrenergic blockade on the daily rhythms of body temperature and oxygen consumption the Black-tailed Tree Rat (Thallomys nigricauda) maintained under different photoperiods. Journal of Thermal Biology 26: 171-177


Downs, C.T., Drummond, A.E., Akhurst, E.G.J. & Inglis, M. 2001. The Marine theme: a contribution to learning in second language Biology students. South African Journal of Education 21: 48-54.


Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Symes, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 2001. Abundance and activity patterns of the Cape Parrot (Poicephalus robustus) in two afromontane forests in South Africa. African Zoology 36: 71-77


Symes, C.T., Downs, C.T. & McLean, S. 2001. Seasonal occurrence of the Malachite Sunbird Nectarina famosa and Gurney’s Sugarbird Promerops gurneyi in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Ostrich 72: 45-49.


Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Symes, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 2000. Abundance of the Cape Parrot in South Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 30: 43-52.


Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Symes, C.T., Perrin, M.R. & Dempster, E.R. 2000. Vocalisations and behaviours of the Cape Parrot Poicephalus robustus (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae). Durban Museum Novitates 25: 12-17.


Downs, C.T., Wirminghaus, J.O. & Lawes, M. 2000. Anatomical and nutritional adaptations of the Speckled Mousebird (Colius striatus). Auk 117(3): 791-794.


Downs, C.T. 2000. Ingestion patterns and daily energy intake on a sugary diet: the Red Lory (Eos bornea) and the Malachite Sunbird (Nectarinia famosa). Ibis 142: 359-364.


Wirminghaus, J.O., Downs, C.T., Symes, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1999. Conservation of the Cape Parrot in southern Africa. South African Journal of Wildlife Research 29:118-129.


Perrin, M.R., Dempster, E.R., Downs, C.T. & Boyer, D.C. 1999. Gerbillurus tytonis. Mammalian Species. American Society of Mammalogists. 607:1-4.


Perrin, M.R., Dempster, E.R. & Downs, C.T. 1999. Gerbillurus paeba. Mammalian Species. American Society of Mammalogists. 606: 1-6.


Dempster, E.R., Perrin, M.R., & Downs, C.T., 1999. Gerbillurus vallinus. Mammalian Species. American Society of Mammalogists. 605: 1-4.


Dempster, E.R., Perrin, M.R., Downs, C.T., & Griffen, M., 1998. Gerbillurus setzeri. Mammalian Species. American Society of Mammalogists. 598: 1-4.


Frean, J., Downs, C.T. & Lovegrove, B. 1998. Osmoregulatory capacity of an arboreal desert rodent (Thallomys nigricauda): Adaptations to high temperatures. Journal of Arid Environments 40: 97-107.


Downs, C.T. 1997. Sugar preference and apparent sugar assimilation in the Red Lory. Australian Journal of Zoology 45: 613-619.


Downs, C.T. & Ward, D. 1997. Does shading behaviour of incubating shorebirds in hot environments cool the eggs or the adults? Auk 114: 717-724.


Downs, C.T. & Wirminghaus, J.O.W. 1997. The terrestrial vertebrates of the Bazaruto archipelago, Mozambique: a biogeographic perspective. Journal of Biogeography 24: 591-602.


Downs, C.T. 1997. Sugar digestion efficiencies of Gurney's Sugarbirds, Malachite sunbirds and Black Sunbirds. Physiological Zoology 70 (1):93-99.


Downs, C.T. 1996. Renal structure, and the effect of an insectivorous diet on urine composition of southern African elephant-shrew species (Macroscelidea). Mammalia 60:577-589.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1996. The thermal biology of southern Africa's smallest rodent, Mus minutoides. South African Journal of Science 92: 282-284.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1996. Sugar preferences of some southern african nectarivorous birds. Ibis 138: 455-459.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1995. The thermal biology of three southern African elephant-shrews. Journal of Thermal Biology 20: 445-450.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1995. The thermal biology of the white-tailed rat Mystromys albicaudatus, a cricetine relic in southern temperate African grassland. Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology 110A: 65-69.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1994. Comparative aspects of the thermal biology of the short-tailed gerbil, Desmodillus auricularis, and the bushveld gerbil, Tatera leucogaster. Journal of Thermal Biology 19: 385-392.


Perrin, M.R. & Downs, C.T. 1994. Comparative aspects of the thermal biology of the Cape spiny mouse, Acomys subspinosus and the Common spiny mouse, A. spinosissimus. Israel Journal of Zoology 40: 151-160.


Downs, C.T., Bowland, J.M., Bowland, A.E. & Perrin M.R. 1991. Thermal parameters of serval Felis serval (Felidae) and blackbacked jackal Canis mesomelas (Canidae). Journal of Thermal Biology 16: 277-279.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin M.R. 1991. Physiological adjustments to low temperatures of four Gerbillurus species. Journal of Thermal Biology 16: 25-29.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1991. Urinary concentrating ability of four Gerbillurus species of southern African arid regions. Journal of Arid Environments 20: 71-81.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1990. Thermal parameters of four Gerbillurus species. Journal of Thermal Biology 15: 291-300.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1990. Field water-turnover rates of three Gerbillurus species. Journal of Arid Environments 19: 199-208.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1990. The effect of diet on the water and energy turnover rates of Four Gerbillurus in captivity. Journal of Zoology (London) 222: 215-233.


Downs, C.T. & Perrin, M.R. 1989. An investigation of the macro and micro-environments of four Gerbillurus species. Cimbebasia 11: 41 54.




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